With the advances in technology, now it is possible to treat many pathologies through a very small incision sites. Similarly, in percutaneous kidney surgery it is possible to break and remove larger kidney stones through a single 1-cm skin incision.
Percutaneous kidney surgery, which is a special method for the removal of kidney stones larger than approximately 2 cm, has been performed more widely in the recent few decades.
In the 80s, a new stone breaking method was developed by using the extracorporeal shock waves, it was thought that the need for any type of stone surgery have significantly reduced
However, as the years passed, it was understood that the shock wave treatment is not suitable for every patient and many sessions were needed when there was a high stone burden and/or hard stones. Percutaneous kidney surgery was reappeared and used usually for larger stones or when there was a failure with other procedures, such as shock wave treatment and ureteroscopy.