Every kidney’s anatomy and features of the stones are different, so the treatment plans must be patient-spesific.
Some special situations
- Solitary kidney
- Problem in both kidneys
- Pediatric or elderly cases
- High stone burden (staghorn, coraliform)
- Radiolucent (not seen on X-ray) stones
- Previously operated kidneys
- Horseshoe kidneys (congenital condition in which the kidneys are fused together)
- Patients with body deformity
- Lomber hernia
- Stones with stenosis
- Stones in caliceal diverticulum
By using the flexible instruments it is usually possible to perform/complete operations through a single entry even in complicated cases. Very rarely additional access sites may be necessary.